Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher dcs vr recording online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Yarn and Yarn Manufacturing: An assemblage of fibers that is twisted or laid together so as to form a continuous strand that can be made into a textile fabric.
So a yarn is a strand of natural or man made fibres or filaments that have been twisted or grouped together for use in weaving, knitting, or other methods of constructing textile fabrics. The type of yarn to be manufactured will depend on the fibres selected; the texture, or hand,of the fabric to be made; and qualities such as warmth, resiliency, softness, and durability required in the fabric's end uses.
Fig: Yarn manufacturing Input - output and objects of individual section of yarn manufacturing for cotton : Input-output and objects of individual section of yarn manufacturing for Cotton is given below step by step Section: Mixing of raw cotton. Input: Bale of raw cotton. Object: To mix different staple fibres properly. To minimize cost.
To produce better quality of yarn at last stage ring.
Output: Mixed raw cotton. Section: Blow room Input: Mixed raw cotton. Object: To open the fibres. To remove the trush. To mix the fibers. To make uniform lap sheet. Output: Lap. Section: Carding. Input: Lap. Object: To remove fine trush. To remove short fibres, neps, motes and foreign materials too. To produce regular sliver.
Output: Carded Sliver. Section: Draw frame Input: Sliver. Object: To parallel the fibres. To blend and mix the fibres. To reduce weight per unit length. To make uniform sliver. Output: Regular sliver. Section: Lap former. Section: Combing.Spinningin textiles, process of drawing out fibres from a mass and twisting them together to form a continuous thread or yarn. In man-made fibre production the name is applied to the extrusion of a solution to form a fibre, a process similar to the method by which silkworms and similar insect larvae produce filament to make their cocoons from a viscous fluid that they secrete.
Common industrial spinning techniques include ring spinning, open-end rotor spinning, and air-jet spinning. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Spinning yarn manufacturing. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Spinning is the process of drawing out and twisting fibres to join them firmly together in a continuous thread or yarn. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.Cotton to Yarn Process -- Yarn Manufacturing Process -- How Make Yarn from Cotton -- wayfarer bd
Spinning is an indispensable preliminary to weaving cloth from those fibres that do not have extreme length. From early times….
Polymer that is to be converted into fibre must first be converted to a liquid or semiliquid state, either by being dissolved in a solvent or by being heated until molten. This process frees the long molecules from close association with one another, allowing….
History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About.Ring spinning is the oldest type of fiber spinning still in use. The process takes a fiber mass rovingreduces the mass through fiber drafting, inserts twist for strength, and winds the yarn onto a bobbin.
Even today, ring spinning makes the widest range of yarn counts with the highest strength. However, ring spinning is slower than other modern spinning systems and requires more processing steps, including off-machine winding of the yarn into large packages. Rotor spinning, also known as open-end spinning, was developed in the s and early s.
The system spins yarn directly from slivers, using a spinning rotor and a withdrawal system that imparts false twist to form the fibers into a yarn. Open-end spinning requires fewer steps than ring spinning, because roving is not needed, and a full-sized package is made directly on the machine.
Rotor spinning is about seven times as fast as ring spinning, but produces weaker yarn in a smaller range of yarn counts. Air-jet spinning first appeared for production use in the early s. A sliver is fed into a drafting system that feeds the yarn into a vortex created by high-speed air jets, to impart false twist. Air-jet spinning has grown in popularity because of its high productivity; it is about 20 times as fast as ring spinning. Numbering is based on the relationship between the length and weight of the yarn.
Two types of systems are used, direct weight per unit length and indirect length per unit weight. Common numbering systems include English count, worsted, metric, tex, and denier. In all yarn spinning systems, twist is used to hold the fibers together. The plying twist is in the opposite direction of the singles twist.
Ring Spinning Ring spinning is the oldest type of fiber spinning still in use. Rotor Spinning Rotor spinning, also known as open-end spinning, was developed in the s and early s. Air-Jet Spinning Air-jet spinning first appeared for production use in the early s. Yarn Twist In all yarn spinning systems, twist is used to hold the fibers together.
Recommended Reading.Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibressuitable for use in the production of textilessewingcrochetingknittingweavingembroideryor ropemaking. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Yarn can be made from a number of natural or synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though.
There are two main types of yarn: spun and filament. The most common plant fiber is cottonwhich is typically  spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth.
Cotton and polyester are the most commonly spun fibers in the world. Cotton is grown throughout the world. After harvesting it is ginned and prepared for yarn spinning. Polyester is extruded from polymers derived from natural gas and oil. Synthetic fibers are generally extruded in continuous strands of gel-state materials.
These strands are drawn stretchedannealed hardenedand cured to obtain properties desirable for later processing.
Synthetic fibers come in three basic forms: staple, tow, and filament. Staple is cut fibers, generally sold in lengths up to mm. Tow is a continuous "rope" of fibers consisting of many filaments loosely joined side-to-side.
Filament is a continuous strand consisting of anything from 1 filament to many. Synthetic fiber is most often measured in a weight per linear measurement basisalong with cut length. Denier and Dtex are the most common weight to length measures. Cut-length only applies to staple fiber.
Filament extrusion is sometimes referred to as "spinning" but most people equate spinning with spun yarn production. The most commonly spun animal fiber is wool harvested from sheep.
For hand knitting and hobby knitting, wool and acrylic yarns are frequently used. Other animal fibers used include alpacaangoramohairllamacashmereand silk. Natural fibers such as these have the advantage of being slightly elastic and very breathable, while trapping a great deal of air, making for some of the warmest fabrics in existence.
Other natural fibers that can be used for yarn include linen  and cotton.
The Basics of Yarn Manufacturing: Spinning Process
The finished product will also look rather different from the woolen yarns. Other plant fibers which can be spun include bamboohempmaizenettleand soy fiber.Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarnyarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.
Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the yearthe global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. There are six stages: . Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreumis finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing.
American cotton, Gossypium hirsutumproduces the longer staple needed for machine production. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant.
The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant; attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2.
Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented inbut did not come into further mainstream use until after orwhen it was introduced and used in Manchester, England.
Byit had become generally adopted.
The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters. The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through.
At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber. The weaving process uses a loom.The process of separating the seeds and debris from the cotton fibers is known as ginning.
Cotton ginning process is done by cotton gin machine but before ginning was done by hand. Types of ginning process: There are three types of ginning. They are Knife roller gin for Indian and Pakistani cotton Macarthy roller gin for long staple cotton Saw gin- Used for American, west African, Pakistani cotton Point should be considered for fiber during processing: Main factors: Length Fineness Maturity Uniformity Trash content Other properties: Pliability Cohesiveness Tensile strength Mixing and blending: Mixing: In mixing, different grades of same fibers are kept together for yarn production.
It is generally meant as the intermingling of different classes of fibers of the same grade. Blending: It is meant as the intermingling of different kinds of fibers are kept together for yarn manufacturing. Objectives of Mixing and blending: Economy Processing performance Functional properties Flow chart of yarn manufacturing process. Tags Yarn. Facebook Twitter. You might like Show more.
Previous Post Next Post. Contact Form. LinkList ul li ul'. Tabify by Templateify v1. Fig: Yarn production flow chart. Fig: Yarn production.Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns.
Sometimes they are put through an additional process called texturing. The characteristics of spun yarn depend, in part, on the amount of twist given to the fibers during spinning. A fairly high degree of twist produces strong yarn; a low twist produces softer, more lustrous yarn; and a very tight twist produces crepe yarn.
Yarns are also classified by their number of parts. A single yarn is made from a group of filament or staple fibers twisted together.
Ply yarns are made by twisting two or more single yarns. Cord yarns are made by twisting together two or more ply yarns. Almost eight billion pounds 3.
Textured, crimped, or bulked yarn comprised one half of the total spun. Textured yarn has higher volume due to physical, chemical, or heat treatments. Crimped yarn is made of thermoplastic fibers of deformed shape. Bulked yarn is formed from fibers that are inherently bulky and cannot be closely packed. Yarn is used to make textiles using a variety of processes, including weaving, knitting, and felting.
Nearly four billion pounds 1. The U. The apparel industry employs another one million workers. Natural fibers—cotton, flax, silk, and wool—represent the major fibers available to ancient civilizations. The earliest known samples of yarn and fabric of any kind were found near Robenhausen, Switzerland, where bundles of flax fibers and yarns and fragments of plain-weave linen fabric, were estimated to be about 7, years old. Cotton has also been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7, years.
It may have existed in Egypt as early as 12, B. Fragments of cotton fabrics have been found by archeologists in Mexico from B. Cotton did not achieve commercial importance in Europe until after the colonization of the New World.